Which Countries Are Not In The Paris Agreement
The Paris Agreement has an „upward“ structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are „top down“, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an „executive agreement, not a treaty.“ Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making „efforts“ to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius. This pathway may trigger natural feedbacks such as massive thawing of permafrost or generalized defensive, which could lead to further uncontrollable warming. This is what scientists call the Hothouse Earth scenario, where sea levels rise from 10 to 60 meters and much of the planet is uninhabitable.
Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an „Annex 1“ country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  The negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that „the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030, resulting from planned contributions at the national level, do not fall into scenarios at 2oC at the lowest cost, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatonnes in 2030.“ and acknowledges that „much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be required to keep the global average temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius, by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.“  [Clarification needed] Hare notes that the poorest nations cannot make deep emission reductions without the long-promised funding and technical assistance of the world`s rich nations.